3. From Guo & Li (2004). Results of combined GBSSI and ITS sequence analysis.
Further work undertaken in Kunming over the years has shown how difficult it is to resolve consistent groups on a phylogenetic basis in the northern temperate clade of bamboos. Conflicts between trees produced by analysis of chloroplast and nuclear genes have made interpretation even harder (Zhang et al 2012).
Nevertheless, a much larger number of bamboos have since been analysed, and about a dozen reasonably well supported groups have been somewhat subjectively and tentatively selected from a larger number that could be considered eligible for taking seriously as putative nomenclatural groups on the basis of molecular analysis (Zeng et al 2010).
Introduction of a more powerful technique, genome-wide RAD sequencing, started for bamboos in 2017 (Wang et al 2017), and better results are hoped for. Meanwhile, the philosophy concerning recognition of genera may have moved on from a rather dogmatic belief in the overriding importance of phylogeny anyway, taking into account the long generation times and abundant hybridisation seen in bamboos. It might even be the case that morphology is coming back into vogue after 2 decades in the wilderness.
Guo et al. (2001). Guo, Z.-H., Chen, Y.-Y., Li, D.-Z., and Yang, J.-B. 2001. Genetic variation and evolution of the alpine bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) using DNA sequence data. Journal of Plant Research 114: 315-322.
Guo et al. (2002). Guo, Z.-H., Chen, Y.-Y., and Li, D.-Z. 2002. Phylogenetic studies on the Thamnocalamus group and its allies (Gramineae: Bambusoideae) based on ITS sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 20-30.
Guo & Li (2004). Guo, Z.-H., and Li, D.-Z. 2004. Phylogenetics of the Thamnocalamus group and its allies (Gramineae: Bambusoideae): inference from the sequences of GBSSI gene and ITS spacer. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 1-12.
Wang, X., Ye, X., Zhao, L., Li, D., Guo, Z., & Zhuang, H. (2017). Genome-wide RAD sequencing data provide unprecedented resolution of the phylogeny of temperate bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae). Scientific Reports 7(1): 11546. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-11367-x
Zeng, C.X., Zhang Y.X., Triplett, J.K., Yang, J.B., & Li, D.Z. (2010). Large multi-locus plastid phylogeny of the tribe Arundinarieae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) reveals ten major lineages and low rate of molecular divergence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 821–839. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.03.041
Zhang, Y.J., Zeng, C.Z. & Li, D.Z. (2012). Complex evolution in Arundinarieae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae): Incongruence between plastid and nuclear GBSSI gene phylogenies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63(3): 777–797. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.02.023